Glossary

A

ALGAE DISCOLORATION
A type of roof discoloration caused by algae. Commonly called fungus growth.

ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials. A voluntary organization concerned with development of consensus standards, testing procedures and specifications.

ASPHALT
A bituminous waterproofing agent applied to roofing materials during manufacture.

ASPHALT PLASTIC ROOFING CEMENT
An asphalt based cement used to bond roofing materials. Also known as flashing cement or mastic; should conform to ASTM D-4586.

B

BACK SURFACING
Fine mineral matter applied to the back side of shingles to keep them from sticking.

BASE FLASHING
That portion of the flashing attached to or resting on the deck to direct the flow of water onto the roof covering. Blisters Bubbles that may appear on the surface of asphalt roofing after installation.

BUNDLE
A package of shingles. There are 3, 4 or 5 bundles per square.

BUTT EDGE
The lower edge of the shingle tabs.

C

CAULK
To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt cement to prevent leaks.

CEMENT
An asphalt based cement used to bond roofing materials. Also known as flashing cement or mastic; should conform to ASTM D-4586. Same as ASPHALT PLASTIC ROOFING CEMENT.

CHALK LINE
A line made on the roof by snapping a taut string or cord dusted with chalk. Used for alignment purposes.

CLASS "A"
The highest fire-resistance rating for roofing as per ASTM E-108. Indicates roofing is able to withstand severe exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.

CLASS "C"
ASTM fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing material is able to withstand light exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.

CLOSED CUT VALLEY
A method of valley treatment in which shingles from one side of the valley extend across the valley while shingles from the other side are trimmed 2 inches from the valley centreline. The valley flashing is not exposed.

COATING
A layer of viscous asphalt applied to the base material into which granules or other surfacing is embedded.

COLLAR
Pre-formed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening Also called a VENT SLEEVE.

COUNTER FLASHING
That portion of the flashing attached to a vertical surface to prevent water from migrating behind the base flashing. Course a row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.

COVERAGE
Amount of weather protection provided by the roofing material. Depends on number of layers of material between the exposed surface of the roofing and the deck; i.e., single coverage, double coverage, etc.

CRICKET
A peaked saddle construction at the back of a chimney to prevent accumulation of snow and ice and to deflect water around the chimney.

CUTOUT
The open portions of a strip shingle between the tabs.

D

DECK
The surface, installed over the supporting framing members, to which the roofing is applied.

DORMER
A framed window unit projecting through the sloping plane of a roof.

DRIP EDGE
A non-corrosive, non-staining material used along the eaves and rakes to allow water run-off to drip clear of underlying construction.

E

EAVES
The horizontal, lower edge of a sloped roof.

EXPOSURE
That portion of the roofing exposed to the weather after installation.

F

FEATHERING STRIPS
Tapered wood filler strips placed along the butts of old wood shingles to create a level surface when reroofing over existing wood shingle roofs. Also called HORSEFEATHERS.

FIBRE GLASS MAT
An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from glass fibres.

FLASHING
Pieces of metal or roll roofing used to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection or projection in a roof such as vent pipes, chimneys adjoining walls, dormers and valleys. Galvanized metal flashing should be minimum 26-gauge.

FLASHING CEMENT
An asphalt based cement used to bond roofing materials. Also known as flashing cement or mastic; should conform to ASTM D-4586. SAME AS ASPHALT PLASTIC ROOFING CEMENT.

FUNGUS
A type of roof discoloration caused by algae. Commonly called fungus growth. Also called ALGAE DISCOLORATION.

G

GABLE
The upper portion of a sidewall that comes to a triangular point at the ridge of a sloping roof.

GABLE ROOF
A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each side of the ridge. Contains a gable at each end.

GAMBREL ROOF
A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope that the upper. Contains a gable at each end.

GRANULES
Ceramic-coated coloured crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.

GUTTER
The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts.

H

HEAD LAP
Shortest distance from the butt edge of an overlapping shingle to the upper edge of a shingle in the second course below. The triple coverage portion of the top lap of strip shingles.

HIP
The inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Runs from the ridge to the eaves.

HIP ROOF
A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides. Contains no gables.

HIP SHINGLES
Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.

HORSEFEATHERS
Tapered wood filler strips placed along the butts of old wood shingles to create a level surface when reroofing over existing wood shingle roofs. Also called FEATHERING STRIPS.

I

ICE DAM
Condition formed at the lower roof edge by the thawing and re-freezing of melted snow on the overhang. Can force water up and under shingles, causing leaks.

INTERLOCKING SHINGLES
Individual shingles that mechanically fasten to each other to provide wind resistance.

J

K

L

LAMINATED SHINGLES
Strip shingles containing more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. Also called three-dimensional shingles or architectural shingles.

LAP
To cover the surface of one shingle or roll with another.

LOW SLOPE APPLICATION
Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between 2 and 4 inches per foot.

M

MANSARD ROOF
A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch that the upper, often approaching vertical. Contains no gables.

MASTIC
An asphalt based cement used to bond roofing materials. Also known as flashing cement or mastic; should conform to ASTM D-4586. SAME AS ASPHALT PLASTIC ROOFING CEMENT.

N

NESTING
A method of reroofing with new asphalt shingles over old shingles in which the top edge of the new shingle is butted against the bottom edge of the existing shingle tab.

NO CUT-OUT SHINGLES
Shingles consisting of a single solid tab with no cut-outs.

NORMAL SLOPE APPLICATION
Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between 4 inches and 21 inches per foot.

O

OPEN VALLEY
Method of valley construction in which shingles on both sides of the valley are trimmed along a chalk line snapped on each side of the valley. Shingles do not extend across the valley. Valley flashing is exposed.

ORGANIC FELT
An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from cellulose fibres.

OVERHANG
That portion of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building.

OVERLAY SHINGLE
A one-piece base shingle to which overlay pads, consisting of an additional layer of asphalt and granules, are applied in random patterns to simulate two-piece laminated shingles.

P

PITCH
The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in feet, to the span, in feet.

Q

R

RAFTER
The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall plate.

RAKE
The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall.

RANDOM-TAB SHINGLES
Shingles on which tabs vary in size and exposure.

RELEASE TAPE
A plastic or paper strip that is applied to the back of self-sealing shingles. This strip prevents the shingles from sticking together in the bundles, and need not be removed for application.

RIDGE
The uppermost, horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.

RIDGE SHINGLES
Shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.

ROLL ROOFING
Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form.

S

SATURATED FELT
An asphalt-impregnated felt used as an underlayment between the deck and the roofing material.

SELF-SEALING SHINGLES
Shingles containing factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.

SHADING
Slight differences in shingle colour that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations.

SHANGLE®
The product design concept originated by CertainTeed that was the original laminated shingle. The Shangle features a full size, one-piece shingle as a base. Individual shingle tabs or overlay pads are applied to this base shingle providing a dimensional look to the roof.

SUPER SHANGLE ®
A patented CertainTeed design in which two 18-inch by 36-inch shingles are laminated together and may feature randomly applied tabs and shadow line accents. The Super Shangle features a full 8-inch exposure versus five inches for most other types of shingles.

SHEATHING
Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material.

SHED ROOF
A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.

SLOPE
The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet.

SOFFIT
The finished underside of the eaves.

SOIL STACK
A vent pipe that penetrates the roof.

SQUARE
A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet.

STARTER STRIP
Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provides protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.

STEEP SLOPE APPLICATION
Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes greater than 21 inches per foot.

STEP FLASHING
Flashing application method used where a vertical surface meets a sloping roof plane.

STRIP SHINGLES
Asphalt shingles that are approximately three times as long as they are wide.

T

U

UL
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.

UL LABEL
Label displayed on packaging to indicate the level of fire and/or wind resistance of asphalt roofing.

UNDERLAYMENT
Asphalt saturated felt used beneath roofing to provide additional protection for the deck.

V

VALLEY
The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.

VAPOR RETARDER
Any material used to prevent the passage of water vapour.

VENT
Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof, gable or soffit for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.

VENT SLEEVE
Pre-formed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening also called a COLLAR.

W

WOVEN VALLEY
Method of valley construction in which shingles from both sides of the valley extend across the valley and are woven together by overlapping alternate courses as they are applied. The valley flashing is not exposed.

X

Y

Z